RCW36: characterizing the outcome of massive star formation

Ellerbroek, L. E.; Bik, A.; Kaper, L.; Maaskant, K. M.; Paalvast, M.; Tramper, F.; Sana, H.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Balog, Z.

Astronomy & Astrophysics, Volume 558, A102 (2013)

ADS – Journal – arXiv

Abstract

Context. Massive stars play a dominant role in the process of clustered star formation, with their feedback into the molecular cloud through ionizing radiation, stellar winds, and outflows. The formation process of massive stars is poorly constrained because of their scarcity, the short formation timescale, and obscuration. By obtaining a census of the newly formed stellar population, the star formation history of the young cluster and the role of the massive stars within it can be unraveled.
Aims: We aim to reconstruct the formation history of the young stellar population of the massive star-forming region RCW 36. We study several dozen individual objects, both photometrically and spectroscopically, looking for signs of multiple generations of young stars and investigating the role of the massive stars in this process.
Methods: We obtain a census of the physical parameters and evolutionary status of the young stellar population. Using a combination of near-infrared photometry and spectroscopy we estimate the ages and masses of individual objects. We identify the population of embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) by their infrared colors and emission line spectra.
Results: RCW 36 harbors a stellar population of massive and intermediate-mass stars located around the center of the cluster. Class 0/I and II sources are found throughout the cluster. The central population has a median age of 1.1 ± 0.6 Myr. Of the stars that could be classified, the most massive ones are situated in the center of the cluster. The central cluster is surrounded by filamentary cloud structures; within these, some embedded and accreting YSOs are found.
Conclusions: Our age determination is consistent with the filamentary structures having been shaped by the ionizing radiation and stellar winds of the central massive stars. The formation of a new generation of stars is ongoing, as demonstrated by the presence of embedded protostellar clumps and two exposed protostellar jets.

Keywords: stars: formation; stars: massive; stars: pre-main sequence; stars: variables: T Tauri; Herbig Ae/Be; Astrophysics – Solar and Stellar Astrophysics


R144 revealed as a double-lined spectroscopic binary

Sana, H.; van Boeckel, T.; Tramper, F.; Ellerbroek, L. E.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Schnurr, O.; Schneider, F. R. N.; Gies, D. R.

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Volume 432, L26 (2013)

ADS – Journal – arXiv

Abstract

R144 is a WN6h star in the 30 Doradus region. It is suspected to be a binary because of its high luminosity and its strong X-ray flux, but no periodicity could be established so far. Here, we present new X-shooter multi-epoch spectroscopy of R144 obtained at the ESO Very Large Telescope. We detect variability in position and/or shape of all the spectral lines. We measure radial velocity variations with an amplitude larger than 250 km s-1 in N IV and N V lines. Furthermore, the N III and N V line Doppler shifts are anticorrelated and the N IV lines show a double-peaked profile on six of our seven epochs. We thus conclude that R144 is a double-lined spectroscopic binary. Possible orbital periods range from two to six months, although a period up to one year is allowed if the orbit is highly eccentric. We estimate the spectral types of the components to be WN5-6h and WN6-7h, respectively. The high luminosity of the system (log Lbol/L ≈ 6.8) suggests a present-day total mass content in the range of about 200-300 M, depending on the evolutionary stage of the components. This makes R144 the most massive binary identified so far, with a total mass content at birth possibly as large as 400 M. We briefly discuss the presence of such a massive object, 60 pc away from the R136 cluster core in the context of star formation and stellar dynamics.

Keywords: binaries: spectroscopic; stars: early-type; stars: formation; stars: individual: RMC 144; stars: Wolf-Rayet; Astrophysics – Solar and Stellar Astrophysics


On the Mass-loss Rate of Massive Stars in the Low-metallicity Galaxies IC 1613, WLM, and NGC 3109

Tramper, F.; Sana, H.; de Koter, A.; Kaper, L.

The Astrophysical Journal Letters, Volume 741, Issue 1, L8 (2011)

ADS – Journal – arXiv

Abstract

We present a spectroscopic analysis of Very Large Telescope/X-Shooter observations of six O-type stars in the low-metallicity (Z ~ 1/7 Z sun) galaxies IC 1613, WLM, and NGC 3109. The stellar and wind parameters of these sources allow us, for the first time, to probe the mass loss versus metallicity dependence of stellar winds at metallicities below that of the Small Magellanic Cloud (at Z ~ 1/5 Z sun) by means of a modified wind momentum versus luminosity diagram. The wind strengths that we obtain for the objects in WLM and NGC 3109 are unexpectedly high and do not agree with theoretical predictions. The objects in IC 1613 tend toward a higher than expected mass-loss rate, but remain consistent with predictions within their error bars. We discuss potential systematic uncertainties in the mass-loss determinations to explain our results. However, if further scrutinization of these findings point towards an intrinsic cause for this unexpected sub-SMC mass-loss behavior, implications would include a higher than anticipated number of Wolf-Rayet stars and Ib/Ic supernovae in low-metallicity environments, but a reduced number of long-duration gamma-ray bursts produced through a single-star evolutionary channel.

Keywords: galaxies: individual: IC1613 WLM NGC3109; stars: massive; stars: mass-loss; stars: winds; outflows; techniques: spectroscopic; Astrophysics – Solar and Stellar Astrophysics


Corona, Jet, and Relativistic Line Models for Suzaku/RXTE/Chandra-HETG Observations of the Cygnus X-1 Hard State

Nowak, Michael A.; Hanke, Manfred; Trowbridge, Sarah N.; Markoff, Sera B.; Wilms, Jörn; Pottschmidt, Katja; Coppi, Paolo; Maitra, Dipankar; Davis, John E.; Tramper, Frank

The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 728, Issue 1, 13 (2011)

ADS – Journal – arXiv

Abstract

Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard “low states.” Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the “focused wind” from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary’s focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8-300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c 2. All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus, whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is >40 GM/c 2.

Keywords: accretion; accretion disks; black hole physics; radiation mechanisms: non-thermal; X-rays: binaries; Astrophysics – High Energy Astrophysical Phenomena